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\begin{frame}
  \frametitle{Consequences of Bad DB Design}

  \begin{goal}{Update anomalies}
  \begin{itemize}
  \item
    When a single value needs to be changed (e.g., a phone number), \emph{multiple tuples} must be updated.  
    This \emph{complicates programs and updates takes longer}.
  \pause

  \item Redundant copies potentially get \emph{out of sync} and it is
    impossible/hard to identify the correct information.
  \end{itemize}
  \end{goal}
  \pause

  \begin{goal}{Insertion anomalies}
  \begin{itemize}
  \item The phone number of a new instructor cannot be inserted into
    the DB until it is known what course she/he will teach.
  \pause
  \item Insertion anomalies arise when \emph{unrelated concepts} 
    are \emph{stored together in a single table}.
  \end{itemize}  
  \end{goal}
  \pause
  
  \begin{goal}{Deletion anomalies}
  \begin{itemize}
  \item When the last course of an instructor is deleted, his/her
    phone number is lost.
  \end{itemize}
  \end{goal}
\end{frame}